Important Filipino historical events in the month of September:
September 23, 1762. British invasion of Manila. The British invaded and occupied Manila until March 1764, when the Seven-Year War in Europe ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. The treaty compelled the British to return Manila and its environs to Spain.
September 6, 1834. Manila was opened to international trade leading to a remarkable transformation of its economy.
September 28, 1890. Balangiga Massacre. About 180 Filipinos attacked 72 American soldiers and killed many of them. Soon after, the Americans retaliated by killing every Filipino who refused to surrender and were capable of carrying arms, including 10-year-old boys. America’s pacification policy turned Samar into a “howling wilderness.”
September 18, 1891. Jose Rizal finished his novel El Filibusterismo following the first, Noli Me Tangere. Both portrayed the struggling life of the Filipinos under the Spanish rule.
September 12, 1896. A group of revolutionaries from Cavite were executed. They are now known as teh “Trece Martires de Cavite” or the thirteen martyrs of Cavite.
September 3, 1899. La Independencia newspaper published Jose Palma’s poem. The poem became the lyrics for the Marcha Nacional Filipina of Julian Felipe, thereby completing a national anthem for the Philippines.
September 18, 1935. Manuel L. Quezon was elected President of the Commonwealth and Sergio Osmena as the Vice President.
September 22, 1943. the Commonwealth government adopted the flag and the anthem as national symbols.
September 2, 1945. Right after the war in the Pacific, Japan surrendered to the Americans. The Philippines later was granted its independence but with over a million Filipino casualties. More than 60,000 Americans died and 300,000 Japanese lost their lives.
September 1945. United Nations membership. The Philippines joined the United Nations.
September 21, 1972. Marcos declared martial law under the proclamation No. 1801. Many opposition leaders including Benigno Aquino, journalists and activists were detained in Fort Bonifacio under martial law.
September 21, 1972. Martial law. President Ferdinand Marcos signed Proclamation 1081 declaring martial law to “save the Republic” from crime and violence. Marcos abolished the Congress and created the semi-parliament, Batasang Pambansa. It caused the takeover of many private businesses by the government, exile, disappearances and imprisonment of individuals critical of the government.
September 24, 1993. Biggest case of corruption. Former first lady Imelda Marcos was convicted for the first time of corruption and sentenced to 24 years in prison. Few days earlier, the remains of former President Marcos who died in 1989 in Hawaii was finally entombed at their family mausoleum in Batac, Ilocos Sur.